Agreement After 1965 War

The agreement brought only a ceasefire and nothing more than that. But war has been important in many ways. First, it was the first successful operation that not only thwarted Paks` attempt to conquer Kashmir, but also occupied areas of strategic importance that put Pakistan under pressure. Pakistan has not changed the situation in J-K. Second, the war improved India`s image on the international stage, particularly after the Salinian-Indian War of 1962. The Times said in its editorial that India would be the power of Asia. Third, it significantly improved relations with the Soviet Union and paid a dividend during the 1971 war. Fourth, India began to focus on the nuclear program to deal with the Chinese threat. Fifth, India has accelerated its defence equipment supply program to strengthen its capabilities. Sixth, India eliminated its weaknesses in collecting and evaluating discoveries that were noticed during the war. India has set up its own external intelligence service and has referred the Joint Intelligence Committee to the cabinet secretariat for a comprehensive assessment taking into account all dimensions. These amendments then paid a rich dividend. The United Kingdom echoed a bias in favour of Pakistan.

British Prime Minister Harold Wilson sent an identical note shortly after India began to take a step towards Lahore in Ayub and Shastri: "Both governments are responsible for the constant escalation that has taken place thereafter, and today`s attack in the Lahore region puts us in a totally new situation." Its reference to Lahore indicated the preference of the United Kingdom. The relationship between the international policy of the Cold War and the Indo-Pak War of 1965 is important in two respects. First, the international policy of the Cold War had an impact on the nature of the conflict and the agreement that followed. In fact, the attitude of the foreign powers influenced the conflict and the evolution of the scenes of the conflict influenced their approach to the parties involved. It would be fair to say that India fought war on two fronts - one on the battlefield and the other on the diplomatic front, and the two were closely linked. Second, the 1965 war occupied the United States and the Soviet Union in a way that set the course for the superpower`s subsequent participation in the region. Since the partition of British India in 1947, Pakistan and India have remained in conflict on several issues. Although the Kashmir conflict was the dominant problem dividing nations, there have been other border disputes, notably over the Rann of Kutch, an arid region of the Indian state of Gujarat. The problem first appeared in 1956, which ended with India regaining control of the disputed area.

[43] Pakistani patrols began patrolling Indian-controlled areas in January 1965, followed on 8 April 1965 by attacks by both countries on each other`s posts. [43] [44] Originally, with the border guards of both nations, temporary skirmishes took place in the disputed area between the armed forces of the countries. In June 1965, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson succeeded in persuading both countries to end hostilities and set up a tribunal to resolve the dispute. The judgment, which came later in 1968, saw Pakistan award 910 square kilometers of the Kutch Rann, contrary to its initial assertion of 9,100 km2 (3,500 square kilometers). [45] The declaration stipulated that "all armed personnel of the two countries would be withdrawn by 25 February 1966 from their pre-5 August 1965 positions and that both sides would respect the ceasefire conditions on the ceasefire line." The Pakistani army has launched a series of covert operations to infiltrate and sabotage Indian air bases. [110] On 7 September 1965, Special Services Group (SSG) commandos were thrown into a hostile area. According to the commander-in-chief of Pakistani army general Muhammad Musa, about 135 commandos were dropped at three Indian airfields (Halwara, Pathankot and Adampur).